In some cases, it may be necessary to use interviews given to the press in written or oral form to confirm an argument . See in my article how to cite an interview in the body of the text in ABNT standards, and rules for making references.
- How to make an introduction to the standards ABNT
- How to indicate an annex in ABNT standards
Interviews for the text (Image: Matt Ragland/Unsplash)
How to quote an interview written at ABNT
The indication of ABNT standards is to use the transcript of the interview content for the body of the text. This indication brings us to an indirect quotation, but it is not forbidden to do it in the direct form.
For historian Evaldo Cabral de Mello, “history, like the mansion of the lord, has many doors and windows”. (MELLO, p. 10, 1998).
How to write in references
For references, the scheme follows the same scheme as for indirect citations in general, together with additional information.
- Name of the interviewee in ABNT format;
- The title of the interview;
- The vehicle that did the interview;
- The name of the interviewer;
- Title of the magazine or newspaper;
- Place of publication;
- Copy volume;
- Copy number;
- "p .” followed by the page location number;
- The month and year of publication.
LAST NAME, First name of the interviewee. Interview title. [Interview given to] Name of Interviewer. Journal title, place of publication, issue volume, issue number, p. (first and final page of the article), month, year of publication.
How to cite oral interview at ABNT
Oral interviews are those in which ethical issues mentioned in the interviewee's speech are taken into account, without written documentation. Lectures, speeches, television or radio interviews are in this group, in addition to interviews with experts orally made by the author of the work.
The best way to quote this interview is to use a mixture of quotes from published documents and quotes from verbal information. Some highlights:
- Fully transcribe the interview, placing it as an appendix in the final work;
- Create the bibliographic reference of the interview according to the recommendations for “Sound document as a whole” present in NBR 6023;
Ex: SILVA, Luiz Inácio Lula da. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva: testimony [Apr. 1991]. Interviewers: V. Tremel and M. Garcia. São Paulo: SENAI-SP, 1991. 2 sound cassettes. Interview granted to Projeto Memória do SENAI-SP
- Ensure the anonymity of respondents, if necessary, using aliases;
Ex: TAL, So-and-so. Interview I. [Jan. 2010]. Interviewer: Ana Maria Mattos. Porto Alegre, 2010. 1 .mp3 file (60 min.). The full interview is transcribed in Appendix A of this monograph
- Indicate in parentheses when the excerpts from the interview are cited in the text, the expression “verbal information” must appear in parentheses, after the interviewee's presentation (in indirect quotation) or after the excerpt (in direct quotation).
This citation model is a little confusing, as it mixes concepts from other rules imposed by ABNT for citations. Written interviews are simpler because they count as a document, oral interviews will give more work due to the need for transcription, which is the written documentation of an oral opinion.
In most cases, the student will need to know how to cite an interview in the body of the text in ABNT standards to indicate written interviews . Good studies!